Water consumption; the vitality to life.

Water is a prime necessity of life, if not available, human beings, animals and vegetation will stop existing.
Water performs a lot of functions for humans such as the replacement of lost fluids from the tissues, excretion of waste products of metabolism, serves as a vehicle to dissolve foods and regulation of body temperature among others.

Facts about water

  • Do you know that water is the most important nutrient on earth due to the fact that the function of cells depends on a fluid environment?
  • Do you know that water makes up 60 to 70% of our total body weight?
  • Are you aware that people who are lean have more water content than their obese counterparts?
  • Is it not interesting to know that infants have a large percentage of water content in the body while older adults have the least?
  • Do you know that no individual can survive more than a few hours in the desert of a few days in a conducive environment when deprived of water?
  • In a healthy person, the amount of water intake will be equals to the fluid output?
  • Do you know that the higher your age, the lower your water body content?

Recommended daily fluid requirements for different ages

3 days - 80-100 ml/kg/day
10 days - 125-150 ml/kg/day
3 months - 140-160 ml/kg/day
6 months - 130-155 ml/kg/day
9 months - 125- 145 ml/kg/day
1 year - 120--125 ml/kg/day
2 years - 115-125 ml/kg/day
4 years - 6 years 100-110 ml/kg/day
10 years - 90-100 ml/kg/day
14 years - 50-60 ml/kg/day
18 years - 40- 50 ml/kg/day
19 years and above  - 50 ml/kg/day

Importance of water to the body.

  • Water aids digestion.
  • Regulation of body temperature.
  • Water prevents your body from dehydration.
  • Elimination of wastes from the body.
  • Water protects tissues, spinal cord acting as lubricant and cushion for joints.
  • It helps to maximize physical.
  • Water improves blood oxygen circulation
  • Water helps to fight against diseases such as urinary tract infections, kidney stones among others.
  • Water helps to boost energy.

Read also https://www.pinksaltinitiative.com/2019/12/the-benefits-of-fruits-and-vegetables.html?m=1

How to access your level of hydration

  • Feeling thirsty means your body is not receiving enough water.
  • Dark or concentrated urine denotes dehydration.
  • Loss of skin turgor indicates dehydration.
  • Pale or non- colored urine indicates proper hydration of the body.

Effects of poor water intake

  • Low blood pressure.
  • Weakness.
  • Dark urine.
  • Dizziness
  • Confusion.
  • Reduced mental function.
  • Sunken eyes.
  • Loss of skin elasticity in severe cases.
  • Urinary tract infections.
  • Kidney problems.

Water treatment process

Clean, safe water is vital for everyday life. Water is essential for health, hygiene and the productivity of our community. The water treatment process may vary slightly at different locations, depending on the technology of the plant and the water it needs to process, but the basic principles are largely the same.

The following describes standard water treatment processes:

  • Coagulation / Flocculation: During coagulation, liquid aluminum sulfate (alum) and/or polymer is added to untreated (raw) water. When mixed with the water, this causes the tiny particles of dirt in the water to stick together or coagulate. Next, groups of dirt particles stick together to form larger, heavier particles called flocs which are easier to remove by settling or filtration.
  • Sedimentation: As the water and the floc particles progress through the treatment process, they move into sedimentation basins where the water moves slowly, causing the heavy floc particles to settle to the bottom. Floc which collects on the bottom of the basin is called sludge and is piped to drying lagoons. In Direct Filtration, the sedimentation step is not included, and the floc is removed by filtration only.
  • Filtration: Water flows through a filter designed to remove particles in the water. The filters are made of layers of sand and gravel, and in some cases, crushed anthracite. Filtration collects the suspended impurities in water and enhances the effectiveness of disinfection. The filters are routinely cleaned by backwashing.
  • Disinfection: Water is disinfected before it enters the distribution system to ensure that any disease-causing bacteria, viruses, and parasites are destroyed. Chlorine is used because it is a very effective disinfectant, and residual concentrations can be maintained to guard against possible biological contamination in the water distribution system.
  • Sludge Drying: Solids that are collected and settled out of the water by sedimentation and filtration are removed to drying lagoons.
  • Fluoridation: Water fluoridation is the treatment of community water supplies for the purpose of adjusting the concentration of the free fluoride ion to the optimum level sufficient to reduce dental caries.
  • pH Correction: Lime is added to the filtered water to adjust the pH and stabilize the naturally soft water in order to minimize corrosion in the distribution system and within customers’ plumbing.

Purposes of water

As we all know that water is essential to life, it is required to carry out arrays of purposes as described below:
1. Domestic purposes: Water is needed for drinking and quench thirst, cooking of different delicacies, washing of clothes and other items, physical and personal cleanliness, and environmental hygiene.
2. Agricultural purposes: Water is used in cultivating food (food and cash crops), vegetables and utilization of raw materials.
3. Public functions: Water aids in maintaining public gardens and parks, quenching of fire outbreak and cleaning of public spaces among others.
4. Industrial purposes: Most manufacturing industries depend on water for their effective outputs. Industries such as pharmaceuticals, iron and steel, clothing and textiles, paper and hospital sectors require a lot of water.

Have you ever heard of portable water? What does it means?

Water needed for drinking should be safe and able to be utilized. Portable water can be defined as water that is free from microorganisms or pathogens, free from harmful chemical agents,  tasteless, odorless and usable for all domestic functions. A safe and portable water supply is more essential to the health of people than any substance whether food or drugs.

Our fluid requirements can be achieved through the following ways:

  • Adequate intake of water.
  • Ingestion of liquids and solid foods like fresh fruits and vegetables (melons and citrus among others).
  • Water produced when the food consumption is oxidized while digestion was taking place.

Sources of water.

Water can be gotten from the following sources:
1. Rain: Rain is the major source of all water, it is the purest water in nature but becomes impure when it passes through the atmosphere and mixed with different suspended impurities like dusts, pathogens and harmful gases which can have severe effects in water quality and plants.

2. Surface water: Surface waters are gotten from rainwater which includes rivers, lakes, seawater, and many-made reservoirs. ( These water sources are reduced in volume or dry in dry seasons except in rainy seasons). One glaring thing about surface water is that "it is prone to contamination from both human and animal activities" (washings, excretion, sewage disposal, emptying of industrial and agricultural wastes, washing of animals). Due to this surface water must be passed through purification and be protected!

Types of surface water are:

- Rivers and streams.
- Tanks, ponds, and lakes.
- Seawater.
- Reservoir.

3. Groundwater: Groundwater is the cheapest, most practical and superior to surface water as a result that the ground provides an effective filtering medium itself.  Ground wells are more likely to be free from microorganisms, supply is certain even during the dry season, needs no treatment or purification but high in mineral contents such as calcium and magnesium that make the water hard.

Types of groundwater include:

- Wells (shallow, deep, tug and tube wells)
- Springs

Water  pollution

How is water being polluted and its detrimental effects?
  • Leaking and corrosion of water supply pipes.
  • Cross and poor connections of water supply pipes and sewage drainage pipes.
  • Emptying of industrial wastes that contain toxic agents such as mercury and arsenic into rivers.
  • Oil spillage.
  • Agricultural agents such as fertilizers and pesticides which are washed down into rivers during raining seasons and irrigation process.
  • Sewage disposal.
  • Heat, radioactive has carcinogenic substances.

Detrimental hazards of polluted water

When water is being polluted by the above-mentioned pollutants, it causes hazards to the body and infectious diseases such as:
1. Waterborne diseases: The infectious agent are alive in drinking water. Examples are cholera, typhoid, paratyphoid, gastroenteritis, viral hepatitis, poliomyelitis among others. The prevalence of these diseases can be reduced through the provision and availability of purified water.

2. Water-based diseases: These are infection of the outer body surfaces. It includes bacilliary and amoeba dysentery, trichomonas skin lesions or ulcers and scabies.

3. Water-based infections: These are as a result of the presence of an aquatic hosts like cyclops that causes guinea worm and fish tapeworm; helminthic diseases ( roundworm, whipworm, an nd threadworm); leptospiral infection).

4. Water- breeding diseases: Also known as water proximity diseases caused by mosquitoes, flies or insects living close to water or aquatic conditions

In conclusion, make sure you drink at least 3-4 liters of water per day (6-8 sachets of sachet water)
  • Make sure that the container you used in storing water is clean and cover with a lid.
  • Fetch water from a good source.i
  • Situate well or water tanks away from soakaways or toilets.
  • If you are using a borehole or well, boil your water before use.
  • Ine clean drawer should only be used to draw water from the well.

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