Osteoporosis causes; What you need to know!

osteoporosis causes

Osteoporosis means "porous bone". It is a metabolic bone disorder characterized by loss of bone mass, increased bone fragility and an increased risk of fractures (break in the continuity of bone).

Osteoporosis affects both males and females as they become older due to the alteration of the bone cells; osteoclasts (bone-destroying cells ) and osteoblasts (bone-forming cells). This metabolic disorder is early and proceeds more hastily in women at the onset of their thirties and hastening before menopause.

Risk factors for osteoporosis.


  • Family history of osteoporosis.
  • Low testosterone levels in males.
  • Poor diet intake e.g low calcium intake.
  • Vitamin D deficiency.
  • Menopause.
  • Medications such as corticosteroids ( prednisolone).
  • Lifestyle e.g cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol intake.
  • Having a thin or small statue.
  • Endocrine disorders such as hyperthyroidism, Cushing's syndrome or diabetes.

Signs and symptoms of osteoporosis.

Osteoporosis is frequently referred to as " silent disease" due to the fact that bone loss happens without symptoms but the following can be manifested:
  • Loss of height.
  • Progressive curvature of the spine e.g dorsal kyphosis or cervical kyphosis.
  • Lower back pain.
  • Fracture of the hips or arms.

Diagnosis of osteoporosis:

  • Bone mineral density (BMD).
  • Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).
  • Ultrasound.
  • Laboratory tests e.g alkaline phosphatase (AST) and serum bone Glaprotein (osteocalcin).

Management of osteoporosis

  • Estrogen replacement therapy.
  • Calcitonin therapy.
  • Vitamin D metabolites therapy.
  • Adequate daily calcium intake.
  • Increased intake of milk and milk products.
  • Intake of dark green, leafy vegetables such as broccoli and spinach.
  • Engage in physical activity, walk at least 15 minutes four or five times weekly.
  • Avoid excessive alcohol intake.
  • Limit caffeine consumption.
  • Maintain good posture, this prevents stress in the spine.
  • Analgesics for pain relieve.
  • Calcium supplements.

Prevention of osteoporosis

The following measures can help reduce the rate of osteoporosis in people:
  • Eat enough calcium diet such as bananas, broccoli,  milk products, and spinach.
  • Get enough rest.
  • Engage in regular weight-bearing exercises such as brisk walking and jogging.
  • Reduce alcohol consumption.
  • Avoid smoking.
  • Eat an adequate diet.
  • Limit caffeinated drinks.

Osteoporosis can be well managed if proper measures mentioned above are adhered to.

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