Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)



Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the women pelvic cavity that may involve salphingitis (infection of the fallopian tubes), oophoritis(ovaries infection) and peritonitis(pelvic peritoneum) or affects the whole pelvic tract of the woman reproductive system.Research as shown that PID remains the primary cause of female infertility.

Causes
  • Sexually transmitted infections;chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea are the most common causative organisms of PID.
  • Multiple sexual partners.
  • Unprotected sexual intercourse.
  • Poor Perineal hygiene.
  • Douching.
  • Sexual intercourse with an infected sexually tranmitted infections partner.
  • Invasive procedures such as abortion,endometrial biopsy,pelvic surgery and Intrauterine device insertion(IUCD).
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Signs and symptoms
  • Abdominal or pelvic pain.
  • Low back pain.
  • Dysmenorrhea (painful menstrustion).
  • Vulvar itching.
  • Dyspareunia (painful intercourse).
  • Heavy and purulent vaginal discharge.
  • Fever.
  • Irregular menses.
  • Abdominal tenderness.
  • Dysuria (painful urination).
  • General weakness.
  • Nausea and vomiting 


Diagnosis
  • Pelvic examination.
  • Cervical culture.
  • Urine test.
  • Pelvic ultrasound.
  • Endometrial biopsy.
  • Laparoscopy 

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Complications
Prevention,early recognition and prompt treatment of vaginal and cervical infections can help prevent PID and its serious complications.
  • Chronic pelvic pain.
  • Recurrent pelvic inflammatory disease.
  • Generalized peritonitis.
  • Acute perihepatitis.
  • Fallopian tube obstruction.
  • Ectopic pregnancy.
  • Septic shock.
  • Infertility.


Treatment.
  • Antibiotics combination therapy such as cefoxitin (Mefoxin) and doxycycline (Vibramycin.
  • Avoid sexual intercourse for three weeks during the treatment.
  • Analgesics drugs to pain relief.
  • Application of heat to the lower abdomen or stiz baths to decrease pain.
  • Bed rest.
  • Surgery when abscess fail to resolve with antibiotics therapy

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Prevention of pelvic inflammatory disease.
  • Wipe from front to back after using the bathroom to stop bacteria from entering your vagina.
  • Proper Perineal hygiene.
  • Limit multiple sexual partners.
  • Engage in protected sex.
  • Eat healthy diet.
  • Avoid douching after sexual intercourse.
  • Regular check up for sexually transmitted infections.



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